When it comes to smoothening the skin and visually improving its texture, there is no single substance that can hold a candle to vitamin A or its relatives. The question is not if, but how much can be achieved with vitamin A. Applied regularly in the evening, vitamin A is the "all-time hero" or the "all-time champion".
Cordero hat 1983 erstmalig anekdotisch die Beobachtung publiziert, dass Vitamin A hautverjüngend wirkt. 1986 hat einer der größten Dermatologen aller Zeiten, der Amerikaner Albert Kligman, die Wirkung von Vitamin A auf die Glättung der Haut an mehreren Probanden systematisch untersucht und publiziert. In den Jahren danach war es besonders die Arbeitsgruppe von John Voorhees von der University of Michigan, die in groß angelegten Studien die biochemischen Mechanismen untersucht und beschrieben hat, die der lokalen Anwendung von Vitamin A und seinen Verwandten zugrundliegt. Die Ergebnisse wurden zum Teil in den angesehensten medizinischen Journalen dieser Welt, z.B. in Nature oder im New England Journal of Medicine After vitamin A comes nothing at all for a long time, followed by substances such as vitamin C, vitamin E or niacin, before nothing at all comes again for a long time. If you want to care for your skin rationally and improve its structure, you can't do without vitamin A.
What is vitamin A?
Vitamin A is found in animal products and as a precursor (provitamin A) in plants, especially in carrots and tomatoes. It is stored in the liver and influences countless metabolic processes in our body. Vitamin A is interesting for the skin because it is a relatively small molecule that penetrates the skin excellently due to its good fat solubility.
What does vitamin A do in the skin?
Vitamin A improves numerous disorders of the skin and also positively influences healthy skin on many levels. It cleanses, exfoliates (thins and exfoliates the skin outer layers), thickens the epidermis, combats blemishes, regulates sebaceous glands, balances pigmentary disorders, regenerates the skin after sun damage and inhibits enzymes that destroy collagen. This last effect causes vitamin A to smoothen the skin and eliminate small wrinkles.
How does skin ageing occur?
Skin ageing has many causes. Genetic skin ageing applies to all skin cells, whether on the buttocks or the tip of the nose. It is an expression of normal ageing and is primarily controlled from within. External skin ageing is grafted onto this. This only takes place where the skin is permanently exposed to UV or external light. This external skin ageing is particularly caused by the fact that UV light leads to the accumulation of oxygen radicals, which in turn activate collagen-destroying enzymes.
How does skin ageing lead to wrinkles?
The epidermis is very thin, only about 0.1 mm in diameter. The main cross-section of the skin is formed by the thick dermis, which gives the skin its structure. It is several millimetres thick. It consists mainly of collagen fibres and, to a lesser extent, elastic fibres. The collagen fibres are subject to constant remodelling. If the collagen degradation is now intensified because the collagen-destroying enzymes are activated by oxygen radicals, the connective tissue framework of the dermis is disturbed and deranged in such a way that collagen disappears, which in turn promotes the premature formation of wrinkles.
What can vitamin A do here?
Vitamin A inhibits the collagen-destroying enzymes. This mutes them and collagen is preserved or its formation is no longer disturbed.
In what concentration is vitamin A used, when and how?
The optimal concentration is 0.3% vitamin A (retinol). This is effective without irritating the skin too much. Since vitamin A is sensitive to light, it should be used in the evening. It is ideal to use vitamin A only 2 times a week at the beginning (e.g. only on Mondays and Thursdays). After 3-4 weeks, the application can be increased to 3 x a week. Those who tolerate this without any problems after a few weeks can also use vitamin A every evening.